原文出處:http://www.littlebigcat.com/nutrition/why-fish-is-dangerous-for-cats/

 

Jean Hofve, DVM簡介

美國獸醫師協會退休獸醫師、作家、天然寵物食品產業及寵物全方位健康顧問。
過去與目前服務的客戶:Little Big Cat, Inc.; Only Natural Pet Store(全球最大寵物天然食品網路商店);Bell Rock Growers;Red Bird
Farms; Blackwing Quality Meats; Nordic Naturals; Moxxor; Ojibwa Tea of Life; Equina Wellness; Harmony Veterinary
Center; The Paw Project; and 一大堆。


 

A lot of cats love fish, but it’s really not a good idea to feed it to your cat! Why not? Because it is simply no longer safe
to feed to cats (and humans should be very careful about eating it themselves, as well as feeding it to their hildren!).
很多貓都很愛吃魚,不過餵你的貓吃魚並不是個好主意!為什麼?沒有為什麼,單純就是吃魚肉已經不再安全。連人吃都必須要特別小心,更何況是餵食給孩童或是寵物吃。


* The fish used in canned pet foods comes from “trash fish,” the unsavory leftovers of the seafood industry. It usually
includes bones, and is high in phosphorus and magnesium, which can be an issue in cats with a history of urinary tract
disorders or kidney disease. In practice, I have seen quite many cats develop urinary tract infections and blockages if they eat much fish–even boneless fish like canned tuna.
罐頭所使用的"魚肉"多半是魚缺乏營養價值、被水產業淘汰的部份。通常包括魚骨頭,而且含有大量的磷跟鎂,對有過泌尿道病史或腎臟病史的貓咪可能造成問題。事實上,我已經看過太多貓咪因為吃太多魚(即使是無刺的鮪魚罐)而泌尿道感染或阻塞。

* Many cats are sensitive or even allergic to fish; it is one of the top 3 most common feline food allergens.
許多貓對魚是很敏感的,甚至會導致過敏。在最常造成貓過敏的食物因子中,魚是前三名之一。

* Fish-based foods contain high levels of histamine, a protein involved in allergic reactions.
While cats’ gut bacteria can synthesize their own Vitamin K from most food sources, fish-based foods may not support sufficient Vitamin K synthesis. Vitamin K is necessary for proper blood clotting. The most common synthetic Vitamin K supplement, menadione, has toxicity issues. We do not recommend feeding any cat food containing menadione.

以魚為基底的食物中,含有多量的組織胺( 一種與過敏反應有關的蛋白質)。雖然貓咪的腸道細菌可以從大部份的食物來源合成他們自體需要的維他命K,但以魚為基底的食物可能無法支持足夠的維他命K 合成(所以為了補足不足的部份,食品製造商可能會添加人工維他命K3)。維他命K是凝血功能的重要元素,而人工維他命K最常見的衍生物,維生素K3(menadione),有毒性問題,我們不建議餵食任何有K3的食物給貓咪。

 

 

(ps.K3-維他命K為天然的,維他命K3為人工合成的,價格低廉,添加在寵物飼料中代替維他命K,過量服用可能導致貧血, 黃膽病, 肝, 腎受損, 甚至死亡。美國食物及藥物控制局(FDA)已禁止 Vitamin K3 及它的所有化合物用於人類食品,但仍然可以有限量地用於動物飼料。資料來源請點我

* There is a link between the feeding of fish-based canned cat foods and the development of hyperthyroidism in older
cats, which is now at epidemic levels.

有許多的臨床案例顯示餵食魚罐頭與老貓甲狀腺機能亢進之間是有相關的。

* Predatory fish at the top of the food chain, such as tuna and salmon, may contain very elevated levels of heavy metals (including mercury) as well as PCBs, pesticides, and other toxins. Tilefish (listed on pet food labels as “ocean whitefish”) are among the worst contaminated, along with king mackerel, shark, and swordfish. These fish are so toxic that the FDA advises women of child-bearing age and children to avoid them entirely; and recommends only 1 serving of albacore tuna per week due to its high mercury levels (yellow or “light” tuna is far safer for us, but still inappropriate for cats). If these fish are dangerous to children, cats are at even higher risk!

食物鏈頂端的捕食魚種(以捕食其他魚類為主的魚種),如鮪魚、鮭魚等,含有大量重金屬(包括汞)、多氯聯苯、殺蟲劑以及其他毒素。受汙染最嚴重的幾種魚類:馬頭魚(tilefish)(寵物食品中會標示為ocen whitefish海洋白身魚)、鯖魚、鯊魚、劍魚。這些魚類也因為含有大量毒素而被FDA(美國食品安全局)建議哺乳期的婦女與兒童完全避免,並建議長鰭鮪(albacore tuna俗稱白鮪)一周最好只吃一次,因其含汞量高。(黃鰭鮪或鰹魚對我們來說是相對安全很多,但仍然不適合貓科動物)(ps.兩種魚的含汞量較低)。如果這些魚類對孩童是有害的,對貓來說,就更危險。

* A substance called domoic acid is a very stable, heat resistant toxin produced by certain species of algae that are
becoming more common in coastal regions due to climate change. (Coastal regions are, of course, exactly where the world ’s fish farms are located.) Domoic acid particularly accumulates in clams, scallops, mussels, and fish. Because it is so dangerous, the FDA limits the amount of this neurotoxin in seafood. However, new research indicates that domoic acid causes damage to the kidneys at concentrations 100 times less than the amount that causes brain toxicity. This is
especially concerning for cat guardians, because not only can the legal level of domoic acid in any seafood harm the
kidneys, but fish that are condemned for human consumption due to excessive domoic acid may instead be processed
directly into pet food. Could contaminated fish in cat food be a hidden factor in the high rate of chronic kidney disease in older cats, who may have been eating this toxin every day for years?

多摩酸,一種毒性穩定且抗高熱的藻毒,由於氣候變化,在沿海地區已經越來越常見。而沿海是全世界漁場最廣大分布的地區。多摩酸最容易累積在蛤、貝類及魚類。由於多摩酸這種神經毒素的危險性,FDA制定規範、限制了其存在海鮮食品的含量。然而,新的研究報告指出,在濃度100倍的情況下,多摩酸對腦部的傷害比對腎的傷害還來的大。貓奴必須特別注意這個現象,因為不只是標準值內的多摩酸會傷腎,那些因為多摩酸超標而禁止被人類食用的魚種可能會因此被用來作為寵物食品。這些存在貓糧裡、受汙染的魚類可能是造成高比例的老貓慢性腎衰的一個隱性因子。

* Fish and other seafood in the Pacific Ocean have been exposed to leaking radiation from the damaged Fukushima
nuclear power facility in Japan for nearly three years. While the authorities continue to assert that there is (so far) no
danger from eating Pacific seafood, the plant is still releasing 300 tons of highly toxic radioactive water into the ocean
every day, with no end in sight. The radioactive plume has reached U.S. shores; and low levels of Fukushima-specific
radioisotopes have been found in West Coast seafood. While the Pacific Ocean’s vastness can and does greatly dilute
the radioactive materials, the continuing leakage–as well as Japan’s dishonesty about its estimates of the amount of
radiation involved–is cause for some concern. A recent meta-analysis found reported significant negative effects on the immune system, and well as increased mutations and disease occurrence even at extremely low levels. (Fortunately, ocean currents largely protect the southern hemisphere’s waters, so products from south of the equator are–so far–unlikely to be affected.)

自從日本的福島核能事件後,太平洋內的魚類及其他海洋食品就暴露在輻射汙染中。雖然有關當局都宣稱食用太平洋海鮮到目前為止,並不會造成傷害,福島核電廠仍每天排放300噸的劇毒幅射水到海洋裡。而美國,已經受到福島幅射的影響。低量的福島幅射已經在美國西海岸的魚獲中發現。雖然浩瀚太平洋用大量海水稀釋著這些幅射物質,幅射還是持續洩漏。同時,日本當局仍因為某些因素而隱瞞洩漏的輻射估計量。近期一個綜合分析發現即使是低量輻射,還是會對免疫系統造成負面影響,並引發突變及疾病。(很幸運的,洋流對南半球的水域形成極大的保護,因此到目前為止,赤道以南的產品似乎尚未受到影響。)

* A recent exposé revealed the terrible human conditions—including outright slavery—involved in Thailand’s seafood industry, as well as the cheap but foul trash-fish slop that is not only used by fish and seafood farmers around the world to feed their stocks (including salmon, tilapia, trout, catfish, carp, shellfish, shrimp, and prawns) but also goes directly into pet food. Thailand is the primary source of fish and seafood products used in pet food; some foods (particularly canned cat foods) are made there and shipped to the U.S.

近年來媒體揭露了ㄧ些可怕的景況。除了隨著泰國海洋食品工業而產生的奴役制度(勞工剝削),那些處理後不值錢又沒利用價值的魚肉殘渣不僅被全世界的魚/海產業者拿來餵食那些養殖魚(鮭魚、吳郭魚、鱒魚、鯰魚、貝類、蝦及龍蝦),也直接流進寵物食品業。泰國是寵物食品中,魚及海鮮產品最主要的來源國,部份食品(包括寵物用魚罐頭)在泰國製造後進口至美國。

* Salmon is a popular cat food ingredient, but today nearly all of it comes from factory-farmed fish. These unfortunate
animals are kept in overcrowded net pens– feedlots–in polluted coastal waters. They’re fed anti-fungals, antibiotics, and brightly-colored dyes to make their flesh “salmon colored”–it would otherwise be gray. Common water pollutants such as PCBs, pesticides, and other chemicals are present in farmed salmon at 10 times the amount found in wild fish. These contaminants will be present in any product made with farmed fish, including cat and dog food.

鮭魚是貓糧中最常見的原料之一,但現今幾乎大部份鮭魚都來自人工養殖。這些不幸的動物被飼育在過於壅擠且水受汙染的沿岸飼育場。他們被餵食抗菌藥、抗生素以及染色劑讓他們的肉看起來接近"真正的鮭魚",不然他們全都會是"灰色的"!常見的水汙染物像多氯聯苯、殺蟲劑、及其他化學物存在養殖鮭魚體內的量是野生鮭魚的10倍。這些汙染物同樣也會在用養殖魚類所作成的犬貓食品中出現。

* “Organic” salmon is also farm-raised, and does not have to comply with USDA organic standards. In fact, there is
currently no regulatory agency in the United States that sets organic standards for fish. The contaminant level of
“organic” farmed salmon may be just as high as that of conventional farmed salmon.

"有機鮭魚"也是ㄧ樣養殖出來的,而且不受USDA(美國農業部)的有機標準規範。事實上,目前美國沒有對魚肉的有機標準進行官方規範。這些所謂的"有機鮭魚"其體內汙染化學物的含量可能與一般人工養殖鮭是ㄧ樣高的。

* Even “wild-caught” Alaskan and Pacific salmon may have been born and raised in a hatchery.

即使標榜是野生的阿拉斯加或太平洋鮭魚也有可能是靠人工孵化養殖。

* Farmed salmon transmit diseases and parasites; those who escape their pens (and they do) outcompete and interbreed with wild salmon.

人工養殖鮭會傳播疾病與寄生蟲,那些逃出飼育場的養殖鮭(他們真的會逃)會與野生鮭競爭並雜交。

* A 2006 study confirms that salmon farms are “massive breeding grounds” for sea lice. Under natural conditions, wild
adult fish carrying these parasites are not in migration channels at the same time as the defenseless, inch-long baby
salmon, so infestation of the young fish is not a problem. But today, in waters near fish farms (which tend to be located at the ends of those same migration channels), up to 95% of baby salmon are fatally infested. It is feared that that farmed salmon from nearly 300 fish factories in North America may ultimately decimate the wild population in the Atlantic.

2006年一份研究報告證實鮭魚養殖場根本是大型海蝨製造場。在天然條件下,這些帶有寄生蟲的野生成鮭魚不會與沒有抵抗力、只有一咪咪大的幼鮭同處在同一遷徙路線,所以小鮭魚的寄生蟲感染完全不會是問題。但今天,靠近養殖場(通常設置在遷徙路線的盡頭處)的水域,有高達95%的小鮭魚被感染。這些來自北美的近300個鮭魚養殖場有可能會毀掉大西洋的野生鮭魚群。

* Research from the University of California raises concerns that the plastics floating in our oceans are absorbing chemical pollutants from the water. Toxins can move up the food chain, starting when fish eat small, contaminated pieces of plastic. Those contaminants enter their tissues, and are transferred to those who eat the fish: including bigger fish (e.g., tuna, mackerel, and tilefish–the fish most commonly referred to as “ocean whitefish”), as well as people and pets.

加洲大學的研究中特別提到那些漂浮在海上的塑膠垃圾會吸收化學汙染物。而有毒物質跟著食物鏈,從魚吃下微小、受汙染的塑膠垃圾開始,那些汙染物進入他們的身體組織,然後轉移到吃下這些魚的生物身上,包括大魚(如鮪魚、鯖魚、馬頭魚,這些魚經常被通稱為海洋白身魚肉類)、人類與寵物。
* Fish tends to be “addictive” to cats. They love it, and will often stage a “hunger strike” by refusing their regular food
in favor of fish. Tuna or other fish should be reserved as a rare and special treat. Feed fish no more than once a week, and even then in very small amounts only.

魚味會使貓上癮。貓愛魚,而且常常為了吃魚而使出絕食抗議的大絕。鮪魚或其他魚應該少餵、當成獎勵性的餵食就好。一周不要餵超過一次,而且一次少量、淺嚐即可。

* The meat is unhealthy, and the fishing/aquaculture industry is environmentally destructive–need we say more?
In general, the small amounts of “fish meal” included as a flavoring and/or source of omega-3 fatty acids in cat foods
are not a problem, but fish should not be a mainstay of any cat’s diet. Fish should be limited to an occasional–and small–treat.

無庸置疑,漁業/水產業對環境造成致命傷害、也使得食用肉品變得不健康。
一般來說,貓食裡如果參雜少量的魚肉,除了增加嗜口性、還富含omega3,不會造成太大問題,但不應該成為主食。魚肉應該限制食用量,只在特殊時候少量給予。

 


 

 

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