Jean Hofve, DVM簡介
過去與目前服務的客戶:Little Big Cat, Inc.; Only Natural Pet Store(全球最大寵物天然食品網路商店);Bell Rock Growers;Red Bird
Farms; Blackwing Quality Meats; Nordic Naturals; Moxxor; Ojibwa Tea of Life; Equina Wellness; Harmony Veterinary
Center; The Paw Project; and 一大堆。
A lot of cats love fish, but it’s really not a good idea to feed it to your cat! Why not? Because it is simply no longer safe
to feed to cats (and humans should be very careful about eating it themselves, as well as feeding it to their hildren!).
* The fish used in canned pet foods comes from “trash fish,” the unsavory leftovers of the seafood industry. It usually
includes bones, and is high in phosphorus and magnesium, which can be an issue in cats with a history of urinary tract
disorders or kidney disease. In practice, I have seen quite many cats develop urinary tract infections and blockages if they eat much fish–even boneless fish like canned tuna.
* Many cats are sensitive or even allergic to fish; it is one of the top 3 most common feline food allergens.
* Fish-based foods contain high levels of histamine, a protein involved in allergic reactions.
While cats’ gut bacteria can synthesize their own Vitamin K from most food sources, fish-based foods may not support sufficient Vitamin K synthesis. Vitamin K is necessary for proper blood clotting. The most common synthetic Vitamin K supplement, menadione, has toxicity issues. We do not recommend feeding any cat food containing menadione.
以魚為基底的食物中，含有多量的組織胺( 一種與過敏反應有關的蛋白質)。雖然貓咪的腸道細菌可以從大部份的食物來源合成他們自體需要的維他命K，但以魚為基底的食物可能無法支持足夠的維他命K 合成(所以為了補足不足的部份，食品製造商可能會添加人工維他命K3)。維他命K是凝血功能的重要元素，而人工維他命K最常見的衍生物，維生素K3(menadione)，有毒性問題，我們不建議餵食任何有K3的食物給貓咪。
(ps.K3-維他命K為天然的，維他命K3為人工合成的，價格低廉，添加在寵物飼料中代替維他命K，過量服用可能導致貧血, 黃膽病, 肝, 腎受損, 甚至死亡。美國食物及藥物控制局（FDA）已禁止 Vitamin K3 及它的所有化合物用於人類食品，但仍然可以有限量地用於動物飼料。資料來源請點我）
* There is a link between the feeding of fish-based canned cat foods and the development of hyperthyroidism in older
cats, which is now at epidemic levels.
* Predatory fish at the top of the food chain, such as tuna and salmon, may contain very elevated levels of heavy metals (including mercury) as well as PCBs, pesticides, and other toxins. Tilefish (listed on pet food labels as “ocean whitefish”) are among the worst contaminated, along with king mackerel, shark, and swordfish. These fish are so toxic that the FDA advises women of child-bearing age and children to avoid them entirely; and recommends only 1 serving of albacore tuna per week due to its high mercury levels (yellow or “light” tuna is far safer for us, but still inappropriate for cats). If these fish are dangerous to children, cats are at even higher risk!
食物鏈頂端的捕食魚種(以捕食其他魚類為主的魚種)，如鮪魚、鮭魚等，含有大量重金屬(包括汞)、多氯聯苯、殺蟲劑以及其他毒素。受汙染最嚴重的幾種魚類:馬頭魚(tilefish)(寵物食品中會標示為ocen whitefish海洋白身魚)、鯖魚、鯊魚、劍魚。這些魚類也因為含有大量毒素而被FDA(美國食品安全局)建議哺乳期的婦女與兒童完全避免，並建議長鰭鮪(albacore tuna俗稱白鮪)一周最好只吃一次，因其含汞量高。(黃鰭鮪或鰹魚對我們來說是相對安全很多，但仍然不適合貓科動物)(ps.兩種魚的含汞量較低)。如果這些魚類對孩童是有害的，對貓來說，就更危險。
* A substance called domoic acid is a very stable, heat resistant toxin produced by certain species of algae that are
becoming more common in coastal regions due to climate change. (Coastal regions are, of course, exactly where the world ’s fish farms are located.) Domoic acid particularly accumulates in clams, scallops, mussels, and fish. Because it is so dangerous, the FDA limits the amount of this neurotoxin in seafood. However, new research indicates that domoic acid causes damage to the kidneys at concentrations 100 times less than the amount that causes brain toxicity. This is
especially concerning for cat guardians, because not only can the legal level of domoic acid in any seafood harm the
kidneys, but fish that are condemned for human consumption due to excessive domoic acid may instead be processed
directly into pet food. Could contaminated fish in cat food be a hidden factor in the high rate of chronic kidney disease in older cats, who may have been eating this toxin every day for years?
* Fish and other seafood in the Pacific Ocean have been exposed to leaking radiation from the damaged Fukushima
nuclear power facility in Japan for nearly three years. While the authorities continue to assert that there is (so far) no
danger from eating Pacific seafood, the plant is still releasing 300 tons of highly toxic radioactive water into the ocean
every day, with no end in sight. The radioactive plume has reached U.S. shores; and low levels of Fukushima-specific
radioisotopes have been found in West Coast seafood. While the Pacific Ocean’s vastness can and does greatly dilute
the radioactive materials, the continuing leakage–as well as Japan’s dishonesty about its estimates of the amount of
radiation involved–is cause for some concern. A recent meta-analysis found reported significant negative effects on the immune system, and well as increased mutations and disease occurrence even at extremely low levels. (Fortunately, ocean currents largely protect the southern hemisphere’s waters, so products from south of the equator are–so far–unlikely to be affected.)
* A recent exposé revealed the terrible human conditions—including outright slavery—involved in Thailand’s seafood industry, as well as the cheap but foul trash-fish slop that is not only used by fish and seafood farmers around the world to feed their stocks (including salmon, tilapia, trout, catfish, carp, shellfish, shrimp, and prawns) but also goes directly into pet food. Thailand is the primary source of fish and seafood products used in pet food; some foods (particularly canned cat foods) are made there and shipped to the U.S.
* Salmon is a popular cat food ingredient, but today nearly all of it comes from factory-farmed fish. These unfortunate
animals are kept in overcrowded net pens– feedlots–in polluted coastal waters. They’re fed anti-fungals, antibiotics, and brightly-colored dyes to make their flesh “salmon colored”–it would otherwise be gray. Common water pollutants such as PCBs, pesticides, and other chemicals are present in farmed salmon at 10 times the amount found in wild fish. These contaminants will be present in any product made with farmed fish, including cat and dog food.
* “Organic” salmon is also farm-raised, and does not have to comply with USDA organic standards. In fact, there is
currently no regulatory agency in the United States that sets organic standards for fish. The contaminant level of
“organic” farmed salmon may be just as high as that of conventional farmed salmon.
* Even “wild-caught” Alaskan and Pacific salmon may have been born and raised in a hatchery.
* Farmed salmon transmit diseases and parasites; those who escape their pens (and they do) outcompete and interbreed with wild salmon.
* A 2006 study confirms that salmon farms are “massive breeding grounds” for sea lice. Under natural conditions, wild
adult fish carrying these parasites are not in migration channels at the same time as the defenseless, inch-long baby
salmon, so infestation of the young fish is not a problem. But today, in waters near fish farms (which tend to be located at the ends of those same migration channels), up to 95% of baby salmon are fatally infested. It is feared that that farmed salmon from nearly 300 fish factories in North America may ultimately decimate the wild population in the Atlantic.
* Research from the University of California raises concerns that the plastics floating in our oceans are absorbing chemical pollutants from the water. Toxins can move up the food chain, starting when fish eat small, contaminated pieces of plastic. Those contaminants enter their tissues, and are transferred to those who eat the fish: including bigger fish (e.g., tuna, mackerel, and tilefish–the fish most commonly referred to as “ocean whitefish”), as well as people and pets.
* Fish tends to be “addictive” to cats. They love it, and will often stage a “hunger strike” by refusing their regular food
in favor of fish. Tuna or other fish should be reserved as a rare and special treat. Feed fish no more than once a week, and even then in very small amounts only.
* The meat is unhealthy, and the fishing/aquaculture industry is environmentally destructive–need we say more?
In general, the small amounts of “fish meal” included as a flavoring and/or source of omega-3 fatty acids in cat foods
are not a problem, but fish should not be a mainstay of any cat’s diet. Fish should be limited to an occasional–and small–treat.